How to install BackTrack 3 or 4 to hard drive along with Windows XP, Ubuntu, Fedora, openSuse on Lenovo Thinkpad X60

From my last post you can see that I installed Fedora and openSuse to my existing dual boot Thinkpad X60 with Ubuntu and Windows. In this post, I will show you how to install BackTrack 3 to the hard drive. These instructions can also be used for BackTrack 4.

First we have to create a partition for the OS. You can only have 4 primary partitions out of which only 1 can be an extended partition. The extended partition can then in turn have multiple logical partitions. I used gparted in Ubuntu to partition my drive as follows.

Primary partition 1 – NTFS for XP
Primary partition 2 – NTFS used as storage
Primary partition 3 – extended partition which has all my linuxes for testing purposes
extended partition contains:
logical partition 1 – ext3, Fedora
logical partition 2 – ext3, openSuse
logical partition 3 – ext3, will be used for Backtrack
logical partition 4 – ext3, future linux (maybe Gentoo)
logical partition 5 – swap (I only have to use one swap for all my linuxes)
Primary partition 4 – ext3 for Ubuntu, my main linux


Now download, burn, and boot up BackTrack 3 live cd.

My BackTrack partition is sda8 and BT3 automatically mounted it to /mnt/sda8

if not, you can mount your drive by typing:
mkdir /mnt/sda8
mount /dev/sda8 /mnt/sda8

replace sda8 with your partition

now, copy the required files from the live cd to the hard drive:

cp --preserve -R /{bin,dev,home,pentest,root,usr} /mnt/sda8/
cp --preserve -R /{boot,lib,etc,opt,sbin,var} /mnt/sda8/
mkdir /mnt/sda8/{mnt,proc,sys,tmp}
mount --bind /dev/ /mnt/sda8/dev/
mount -t proc proc /mnt/sda8/proc/

The installation is done, now you can reboot and add the BackTrack to the grub menu.lst

Reboot into Ubuntu and:
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

This is what my grub looks like. The part in bold is for BackTrack:

title Ubuntu Jaunty, kernel 2.6.28-11-generic
root (hd0,1)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.28-11-generic root=UUID=da7e4aba-35c8-4ab8-a882-d5c7c324101a ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.28-11generic

title Ubuntu Jaunty, kernel 2.6.28-11-generic (recovery mode)
root (hd0,1)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.28-11-generic root=UUID=da7e4aba-35c8-4ab8-a882-d5c7c324101a ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.28-11-generic

title Ubuntu Jaunty, kernel 2.6.24-16-generic
root (hd0,1)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.24-16-generic root=UUID=da7e4aba-35c8-4ab8-a882-d5c7c324101a ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.24-16-generic

title Ubuntu Jaunty, memtest86+
root (hd0,1)
kernel /boot/memtest86+.bin


# This is a divider, added to separate the menu items below from the Debian
# ones.
title Other operating systems:

# This entry automatically added by the Debian installer for a non-linux OS
# on /dev/sda1
title Microsoft Windows XP Professional
root (hd0,0)
chainloader +1

# This entry automatically added by the Debian installer for an existing
# linux installation on /dev/sda5.
title Fedora ( (on /dev/sda5)
root (hd0,4)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz- ro root=UUID=cae92252-724a-4e24-841d-e8c3fb24f861 rhgb quiet
initrd /boot/initrd-

# This entry automatically added by the Debian installer for an existing
# linux installation on /dev/sda5.
#title Fedora ( (on /dev/sda5)
#root (hd0,4)
#kernel /boot/vmlinuz- ro root=UUID=cae92252-724a-4e24-841d-e8c3fb24f861 rhgb quiet
#initrd /boot/initrd-

# This entry automatically added by the Debian installer for an existing
# linux installation on /dev/sda6.
title openSUSE 11.1 – (on /dev/sda6)
root (hd0,5)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz- root=/dev/sda6 splash=silent showopts vga=0x317
initrd /boot/initrd-

# This entry automatically added by the Debian installer for an existing
# linux installation on /dev/sda6.
title Failsafe — openSUSE 11.1 – (on /dev/sda6)
root (hd0,5)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz- root=/dev/sda6 showopts ide=nodma apm=off noresume nosmp maxcpus=0 edd=off powersaved=off nohz=off highres=off processor.max_cstate=1 x11failsafe vga=0x317
initrd /boot/initrd-

title BackTrack 3 Final KDE
rootnoverify (hd0,7)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz vga=0x317 root=/dev/sda8 ro quiet splash autoexec=xconf;kdm

title BackTrack 3 Final shell
root (hd0,7)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz ro root=/dev/sda8 vga=0x317

Reboot into BackTrack and check here to create a new user and

check here to install packages with slapt-get or here to see how I installed BT 4 on my lenovo S10 without a CD player or USB.

How to Install packages with slapt-get or gslapt in BackTrack 3

Once BackTrack is installed on the harddrive, open the menu and goto K -> BackTrack -> Penetration -> Fast Track
./ -i
Enter the Fast-Track updates menu (1).
Update everything (9).

After the update finishes, select the Installation menu (8).
Install everything (8).
Go back to the Installation menu, select Install Slapt-Get (1)
Install Slapt-Get (2), then select update SlackWare (1).
Exit (10)

Now, you can use slapt-get to install packages from the slackware repositories. For example, if you want to install mozilla-thunderbird:
Make sure it exists in the repositories:
slapt-get --search thunderbird
if you find it, use the install parameter to install:
slapt-get --install mozilla-thunderbird-


you can also use the gui front-end for slapt-get, but it is broken by default in BT3. so let’s reinstall it:
slapt-get --install --reinstall gslapt

How To contribute to Ubuntu, report bugs at launchpad, find and install latest *.deb

Reporting bugs using launchpad:

Finding and installing latest *.deb files:

Ways to contribute to Ubuntu:

Become a GNOME translator:

Another contributing thread:

Ubuntu wiki about contributing:

How to install Opera and Thunderbird and share the profiles between Windows, Ubuntu, Fedora and openSuse

Mozilla thunderbird saves the settings in a file called profile.ini. This file contains the location of the folder which has all your mail and settings. When first installed and loaded, thunderbird creates a random folder like diy1bg1t.default.

Opera settings are stored in Opera6.ini. This has information for the location of other settings files, like wand passwords, plugin locations, etc.

I installed these programs on Windows first and kept the default settings and locations for these files. After installing Ubuntu, I had to figure out a way to share the profiles, but back then people were suggesting to make a common FAT32 partition and keep these files there so Linux could have read and write access to them. With NTFS-3G, this became much easier and I just left the files on the NTFS partition. Later on I installed Fedora and openSuse on the same machine and used the same directions like Ubuntu. (Check here to see my post about Quad Booting my Thinkpad with Windows, Ubuntu, Fedora, and openSuse)

The first step was to make sure the NTFS partition was mounted at start up. I made a folder for the mount:

sudo mkdir /media/sda1

On startup, the system looks for partitions to mount in fstab. If you need more information on mounting and fstab, I recommend this post at

opened fstab for editing:

sudo gedit /etc/fstab

added the following entry to fstab because my Windows partition is at /dev/sda1:

# My windows partition
/dev/sda1 /media/sda1 ntfs-3g defaults, locale=en_US.UTF-8 0 0

Save file, restart.

Once Linux loaded back up and the Windows partition was automatically mounted, I got the packages for Opera and thunderbird and installed them with this:

In Ubuntu:
sudo apt-get install opera mozilla-thunderbird

Thunderbird In Fedora:
(enter password)
yum install thunderbird

Thunderbird in openSuse:
used the yast2 graphical package manager.



Opera in Fedora and openSuse:
downloaded rpm package from onto desktop

rpm -ivh /home/(user)/Desktop/opera-9.64.gcc4-shared-qt3.i386.rpm


The mozilla profile.ini file will be under
/home/(user)/.mozilla-thunderbird for Ubuntu
/home/(user)/.thundebird for openSuse and Fedora

The folders that start with a dot are hidden and you can unhide them in Nautilus (Gnome) with “Alt+H” and in Dolphin (KDE) with “Alt+.”

The profile.ini in Linux should be something like this pointing to the folder which has your mail:


Path=/media/sda1/Documents and Settings/(windows user)/Application Data/Thunderbird/Profiles/diy1bg1t.default

Make sure that isRelative=0 and replace the diy1bg1t with the appropriate foldername

Now when I opened up Thunderbird, I had my mail !!!!

Moving on to Opera:

After Opera was installed in Linux, I copied the opera6.ini from windows to the opera folder in Linux located at /home/(user)/.opera

opened up the new opera6.ini for editing:

sudo gedit /home/(user)/.opera/opera6.ini

and replaced all the paths C:\Program Files\Opera 9\profile with /media/sda1/Program Files/Opera 9/profile


and deleted the session folder in /.opera and created a symbolic link to point to the session folder in windows.


Opened up Opera and was happy to discover all my tabs and settings!!

Lenovo Thinkpad X60 with Fedora 10, openSuse 11, Ubuntu 9.04 and Windows XP

I’ve been using Ubuntu dual booted with windows for quite a while now, but due to driver compatibility issues and lack of knowledge used windows for the most part. Since Ubuntu 8.10, I’ve completely switched over to Ubuntu and love it. Mostly because it’s FREE! Windows is still hanging around in case I might need it for some program in the future. I use Thunderbird as my email client and Opera as my web browser. One of my main concerns was sharing the profiles for these programs, but NTFS-3G has made life easier.

After feeling comfortable with Ubuntu, I decided I needed to expand my knowledge by learning to use KDE; different package managers like yum and yast; and the possibility of having multiple Linux Oses on single partitions. After doing some research, I decided I should either go with openSuse or Fedora. Then, I figured: “Why not both?” and leave Ubuntu and Windows intact. I downloaded the Live CD’s for both Oses. The Live CD installation has less programs and tools installed compared to the DVD installation.

I opened Gparted on Ubuntu to make extra partitions for Fedora and openSuse, but I realized I can’t have more than 4 primary partitions without hacking the MBR. I deleted the Linux Swap partition because I already have 2GB of RAM. I resized my Windows and Storage partitions and made one extra partition on which I would install both Fedora and openSuse. I split the partition into 2 logical partitions of about 5GB each.


Since my Lenovo does not have an optical drive, I had to use an external USB drive and allow the BIOS to boot from it

Popped in the Fedora Live CD and installed Fedora. I selected the first logical partition and set this location as “/” (root) and opted not to use a swap space. When it asks to install GRUB, you can choose not to or to install it at the beginning of the Root partition and not at the beginning of the whole hard drive because Ubuntu has already installed GRUB there and you might not want to write over it. I chose not to install GRUB. It was a painless install. Restarted and booted into Fedora to make sure it worked.

Next, I popped in the openSuse Live CD and installed it to the second logical partition also without swap space. Again, chose not to install GRUB. Install was again pretty simple. Booted into openSuse to make sure it worked.

Now, I had to update my GRUB to include the other Oses. I could have done it manually, but I chose to upgrade my 8.10 Intrepid to 9.04 Jaunty by hitting “Alt+F2” and typing “upgrade-manager -d”, which updated the entries in GRUB automatically.





Still one more issue: How to install Opera and Thunderbird and share the profiles between Windows, Ubuntu, Fedora and openSuse. This call for a new blog entry.






How To save documents from Scribd when disabled by user with Ubuntu Intrepid or Jaunty

Some users disable the option to download a document from scribd but the option to print is still available. We can use this to our advantage and save the document by printing the file to PDF.

In Ubuntu, we need to install cups-pdf to create a postscript printer. Check my previous post here for a tutorial.

After installing the PDF printer, go to the document you want to save on scribd.  Select more -> Print


Select the PDF printer and hit print.  and wait…...………. this can take upto 10-15 minutes depending on how big the file is.


Check the print status. 6 minutes and still printing……


When done, the file will be saved in the PDF folder we created and will be called _stdin_.pdf


How To Print to PDF in Ubuntu Intrepid Ibex and Jaunty Jackalope

Starting with Intrepid, the print to file option is integratedwhen you print.  However, with some programs, this causes garbled text after the first page, while other programs do not work with this option (check how to save documents from when disabled).

We can solve this problem with the good old cups-pdf tool.  We start by installing it with apt-get:

sudo apt-get install cups-pdf

install cups-pdf

change permissions
sudo chmod +s /usr/lib/cups/backend/cups-pdf

now when you goto system –> Administration -> printing
you should have a PDF printer. When you print, just select the PDF printer and by default the files are saved in a folder called PDF, so we will create this folder.

sudo mkdir ~/PDF/

mkdir ~/PDF/

You can change the default location by editing the .conf file :

sudo gedit /etc/cups/cups-pdf.conf

Install/Update Opera 9.64 in Ubuntu Intrepid Ibex/Jaunty Jackalope

In this tutorial I will show you how to install or update to Opera 9.64 in Ubuntu. This guide is for a beginner to the operating system and will work for any version of Ubuntu, including other Debian based linux distributions.

If you are upgrading, first check for an update under help in the browser or you can directly go to the website and download the latest version.

opera update

save the file to the desktop and close the browser.
opera update

double click the .deb file and click install package even if you are upgrading.
opera update

close the installation process and restart your browser
opera update

Gnome Display Manager problems (error setting mtrr) in Ubuntu Intrepid 8.10

Last night I spent a lot of time trying to get my Gnome Display manager to work in Ubuntu Intrepid 8.10. Alot of people are having a hard time with the display after upgrading from Hardy 8.04 to Intrepid 8.10.
Every time I try to shutdown the system, I get an error about “error setting MTRR”. These are the steps I took to fix the issue.

*IMPORTANT*- before doing any troubleshooting with X, I recommend backing up the xorg configuration file.
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /home/user/Desktop/xorg.conf.old

I tried clearing out the /proc/mtrr and rewriting it by using the following commands:

echo "disable=0" >| /proc/mtrr
echo "disable=1" >| /proc/mtrr
echo "disable=0" >| /proc/mtrr

and inserting

echo "base=0x00000000 size= type=write-back" >| /proc/mtrr

check here for more help.

Still no luck.

Tired and frustrated, I decided to reinstall

sudo apt-get install --reinstall gdm, nautlius, ubuntu-desktop, x-gnome-session, xserver-xorg

I finally did:
sudo update-alternatives --configure x-session-manager
More on update-alternatives here.

Searching on the web, I found this on

I had this problem exactly as described in the original report, after an upgrade from 8.04 to 8.10.

I eventually tracked it down to a dangling link from /etc/alternatives/x-session-manager. It was pointing to a nonexistent KDE4 startkde script, which presumably used to exist in 8.04. I had never actually used KDE4 seriously, but I must have installed it at some point in the old system and run it before reverting to gnome. I guess that means the old KDE4 start script was equally capable of restoring a gnome session, or something.

Anyway, “sudo update-alternatives –auto x-session-manager” seems to fix it.

(The workaround described in an earlier comment, of explicitly running the GNOME session type, also worked. But I wanted to find a fix that would work for the X client script option as well, because I was also trying to investigate the session script to work out why my session was not being restored properly. Unfortunately, then I ran into bug 249373, “gnome session does not restore the previous session” — which answers that one. I would never have upgraded to 8.10 if I had known about that absolutely amazing regression. But that’s another matter.)


After all that, I replaced my backup xorg.conf file
sudo cp /home/user/Desktop/xorg.conf.old /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Restarted the system, and now its working fine!

How to connect to wireless network from command line without GUI in Ubuntu

While trying to fix my Gnome Display Manager, apt-get removed several other packages besides gdm when I marked it for removal it. I had no GUI and no internet connection. I needed a way to connect to the internet to sudo apt-get install gdm (install gdm back).

I first had to find out the interface of my wifi card:
lshw -C network
this shows the network interfaces available on your system. Where it says logical name, this is what the interface is. lshw is a tool used to find hardware configuration information. my interface showed wmaster0, but for some reason it actually is wlan0.
I did:
sudo ifconfig wlan0 up to bring up the interface
sudo iwlist wlan0 scan to find my network
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid "NETGEAR" key (10digitWEP) to connect
sudo dhclient wlan0 to get an assigned IP with DHCP

Didn’t work because I had WPA set up and for that I would need wpa supplicant, so I disabled the WPA on my router and typed:
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid "NETGEAR" key off
sudo dhclient wlan0


I was going to write a detailed guide about troubleshooting the wireless from the command line, but then I found this great article by ubuntugeek.